Walker. R. "The Effects of Culture, Environment, Age, and Musical
Training on Choices of Visual Metaphors for Sound." Percep. & Psycho.
42 (1987): 491--502.
The author reports on studies of choices of visual metaphors for sound
parameters. In the sound domain he looked at frequency, waveform, amplitude,
Ward, W. D. "Subjective Musical Pitch." J. Acous. Soc. Am. 26(3)
Ward presents empirical evidence that the pitch of pure tones is a subjective
judgment of the listener, not very consistent across subjects, and whose
rate of change is independent of the frequency level of the acoustic source.
Wallach, H., E. B. Newman, and M. R. Rosenzweig. "The Precedence Effect
in Sound Localization." Am. J. Psych. 57 (1949): 315--336.
In a reverberant room, two similar sounds reach a subject's ears from different
directions, with one sound following the other after a short delay; yet
the subject fuses them into a single sound and localizes this sound based
on the source of the first sound to reach the ears. The authors study this
perceptual phenomena, which they term the "precedence effect."
Warren, D. H., R. B. Welch, and T. J. McCarthy. "The Role of Visual-Auditory
`Compellingness' in the Ventriloquism Effect: Implications for Transitivity
Among the Spatial Senses." Percep. & Psycho. 30 (1981):
The authors study intersensory interactions and find, with sufficiently
compelling cues, visual cues can [text missing?].
Warren, W. H., R. R. Verbrugge. "Auditory Perception of Breaking and
Bouncing Events: A Case Study in Ecological Acoustics." J. Exp. Psych.
10 (1984): 704--712.
A seminal study of everyday listening which used analysis and synthesis
of events to link acoustical information to event perception.
Weber, C. R. "Sonic Enhancement of Map Information: Experiments Using
Harmonic Intervals." Unpublished dissertation, Department of Geography,
State University of New York at Buffalo, 1993.
The author has found an relationship among aural variables that is analogous
to the hierarchy of visual variables presented by Bertin (1983). Pitch
supersedes both texture (consonance) and color (scale position).
Weber, C. R., and M. A. Yuan. "Statistical Analysis of Various Adjectives
Predicting Consonance/Dissonance and Intertonal Distance in Harmonic Intervals."
Technical Papers, ACSM/ASPRS Annual Convention, New Orleans, Vol. 1, 391--400.
The authors report successful delineation of relative consonance and intertonal
distance selection by subjects associating dyads with various continua
of cartographic adjectives. These results seem to hold only when the dyads
are presented in isolation.
Welch, R. B. Perceptual Modification: Adapting to Altered Sensory
Environments. New York: Academic Press, 1978.
Excellent classic source on adaptation and response to presentation of
altered sensory cues. Welch also considers intersensory interactions (more
on this can be found in a paper by Welch and Warren (1986)).
Welch, R. B., and D. H. Warren. "Intersensory Interactions." In Handbook
of Perception and Human Performance, edited by K. R. Boff, L. Kaufman,
and J. P. Thomas, chap. 25. New York: Wiley, 1986.
The authors review and evaluate research on intersensory bias, particularly
interactions between vision and audition on detection, spatial localization,
and perception of temporal events. They take the view that sensory modalities
vary in their appropriateness for the perception of various events.
Wenzel, E. M., F. L. Wightman, and S. H. Foster. "Development of a Three-Dimensional
Auditory Display System." SIGCHI Bull. 20 (1988): 52--57.
An early description of the three-dimensional auditory display system created
at NASA-Ames that would become the Convolvotron. The authors describe measurement
and testing of HRTFs.
Wenzel, E. M., and S. H. Foste. "Real-Time Digital Synthesis of Virtual
Acoustic Environments." Comp. Graphics 24(2) (1990): 139--140.
Wenzel, E. M., F. L. Wightman, and D. J. Kistler. "Localization with
Non-individualized Virtual Acoustic Display Cues." in CHI '91 Proceedings,
351--359. Reading, MA: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley, 1991.
Virtual interface research is represented in the work of Wenzel et al.
(1988, 1990, 1991) who have developed three-dimensional auditory cues transmitted
over user-worn headphones. The authors have found that even simple auditory
cues--such as a sound signaling a direction, distance, and, finally, contact
with a virtual object--can aid the user in manipulating the virtual world.
Wenzel, E. M. "Localization in Virtual Acoustic Displays." Presence:
Teleop. & Virtual Environ. 1 (1992): 80--107.
Wenzel provides an overview of the acoustical, psychoacoustical, and technological
bases for the synthesis of spatial sound in virtual displays, with an emphasis
on the work conducted at NASA-Ames Research Center.
Wenzel, E. M. "Spatial Sound and Sonification." In Auditory Display:
Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, edited by G. Kramer.
Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Proc. Vol. XVIII.
Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1994.
Wenzel provides a brief description of three-dimensional sound synthesis
and describes the performance advantages that can be expected when these
techniques are applied to sound streams in sonification displays. Specific
examples, and the lessons learned from each, are discussed for applications
in telerobotic control, aeronautical displays, and shuttle launch communications.
"What's That Noise." Home Mechanix (May 1986): 81--107.
This article includes descriptions of the sounds that can be useful in
diagnosing problems with automobiles.
Wiener, F. M., and D. A. Ross. "The Pressure Distribution in the Auditory
Canal in a Progressive Sound Field." J. Acous. Soc. Am. 18
The authors took sound measurements using probe microphones. According
to Blauert (1969), they were the first to measure the linear distortions
caused by pinna, head, and ear canal.
Wightman, F. L., and D. J. Kistler. "Headphone Simulation of Free-Field
Listening I: Stimulus Synthesis." J. Acous. Soc. Am. 85 (1989):
The authors describe a technique for measuring head-related transfer functions
and synthesizing static virtual sound sources, which forms the basis of
current approaches to spatial sound displays.
Wildes, R., and W. Richards. "Recovering Material Properties from Sound."
In Natural Computation, edited by W. Richards. Cambridge, MA: MIT
Using analytical physics, the authors suggest that auditory identification
of material involves judging damping and partial bandwidth, which together
specify the internal friction-characterizing materials.
Williams, M. G., S. Smith, and G. Pecelli. "Experimentally Driven Visual
Language Design: Texture Perception Experiments for Iconographic Displays."
In Proceedings of the IEEE 1989 Visual Languages Workshop, held
in Rome, Italy, 62--67. Rome: IEEE, 1989.
In this report the authors describe the only formal experiment conducted
to date by the University of Massachusetts' Lowell group to evaluate their
"iconographic" approach to both visualization and sonification. Like many
similar experiments conducted during the 1980s, it showed that subjects'
performance on a data analysis task improved modestly when the subjects
used a combined visual-auditory data display rather than just a visual
Williams, M. G., S. Smith, and G. Pecelli. "Computer-Human Interface
Issues in the Design of an Intelligent Workstation for Scientific Visualization."
SIGCHI Bull. 21 (4) (1990): 44--49.
The Exploratory Visualization project presents sonification of anatomic
map data through an iconic technique. See annotations to S. Smith and G.
Williams, S. M. "STREAMER: A Prototype Tool for Computational Modelling
of Auditory Grouping Effects." Research Report No: CS-89-31, Department
of Computer Science, University of Sheffield, 1989.
Williams presents a simple gestalt-based computational model of auditory
streaming together with a proposition for a framework of auditory gestalt.
Williams, S. M. "Perceptual Principles in Sound Grouping." In Auditory
Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, edited
by G. Kramer. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity,
Proc. Vol. XVIII. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1994.
Overview of auditory perception from a gestalt viewpoint, presenting examples
of phenomena which may influence the interpretation of Auditory Displays.
Witten, M. "Increasing Our Understanding of Biological Models Through
Visual and Sonic Representations: A Cortical Case Study." Intl. J. Supercomp.
Appl. 6(3) (Fall 1992): 257--280.
Witten describes the use of integrated sonification and visualization
in representation of digitized image data.