Lakoff, G., and M. Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 1980.
The authors provide a powerful description of how we use metaphors in everyday
language without even knowing that we are doing so. They investigate how
these metaphors are not only a reflection of our thinking processes, but
how they shape those very processes.
Lamb, H. The Dynamical Theory of Sound, 2nd ed. New York: Dover,
A classic book on the physics of sound and sound-producing events.
Laurel, B. "Interface as Mimesis." In User-Centered System Design:
New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interface, edited by D. A. Norman
and S. W. Draper. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986.
The author introduces the analogy between using a computer and attending
a drama; she suggests that users' engagement with a system is an important
dimension to be considered in design.
Loomis, J. M., C. Hebert, and J. G. Cicinelli. "Active Localization
of Virtual Sounds." J. Acous. Soc. Am. 88 (1990): 1757--1764.
As part of a larger project to produce the user interface for a personal
navigation system, the authors developed a low-cost, computer-controlled,
analog, virtual sound display system that does not use direction-dependent
pinna cues. Using only interaural time difference and interaural intensity
difference coupled with head orientation, they found that subjects could
home to virtual sound sources quite well, and found some indications that
the virtual sounds were perceived as being externalized. While the use
of HRTFs may produce more realistic displays, this study shows the potential
of simple virtual auditory displays, e.g., for navigation tasks.
Lovstrand, L. "Being Selectively Aware with the Khronika System." In
Proceedings of ECSCW '91, held September 25--27, 1991, in Amsterdam,
The author describes an event database that uses nonspeech audio cues amongst
its techniques for notifying users about events.
Lunney, D., and R. C. Morrison. "High-Technology Laboratory Aids for
Visually Handicapped Chemistry Students." J. Chem. Ed. 58(3)
The authors present analytical chemistry data from infrared spectral
to visually impaired students. The pitch of a tone was made proportional
to the frequency location of the infrared peak it represents. In informal
tests, subjects were able to accurately identify a range of learned compounds.