Gaver, W. W. "Everyday Listening and Auditory Icons." Ph.D. Dissertation,
University of California, San Diego, 1988.
A two-part dissertation: Part One explores the basic psychology of everyday
listening (a.k.a. auditory event perception) via physical analyses, protocol
studies, and a study of hearing the length and material of struck bars.
Part Two consists of a collection of papers about auditory icons.
Gaver, W. W. "The SonicFinder: An Interface that Uses Auditory Icons."
Hum.-Comp. Inter. 4(1) (1989).
The authors describe the SonicFinder, a modification of the most commonly
used Macintosh program which incorporates auditory icons. The paper also
contains a discussion of mapping sounds to underlying computer events.
Gaver, W. W. "Sound Support for Collaboration." In Proceedings of
the Second European Conference on Computer-Supported Collaborative Work,
held September 24--27, 1991, in Amsterdam. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1991.
Gaver suggests that sound offers a new dimension for awareness in collaborative
systems. He uses as examples the ARKola study (which is also described
in Gaver et al., 1991) and the EAR system.
Gaver, W. W. "Using and Creating Auditory Icons." In Auditory Display:
Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces, edited by G. Kramer.
Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity, Proc. Vol. XVIII.
Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1994.
This paper reviews the author's work on auditory icons from 1988 to his
present research in parameterizing the icons by a variety of synthesis
techniques. A number of systems are described which illustrate the functions
that auditory icons can perform.
Gaver, W. W. "Synthesizing Auditory Icons." In Proceedings of INTERCHI
'93, held April 24--29, 1993, in Amsterdam. Reading, MA: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley,
Gaver escribes a series of algorithms for synthesizing everyday sounds
specified in terms of their causal event; he suggests that these algorithms
might be useful in creating parameterized auditory icons.
Gaver, W. W. "What in the World Do We Hear? An Ecological Approach to
Auditory Source Perception." Ecol. Psych. (5)1 (1993).
Gaver suggests everyday listening as a field of study and develops a framework
for describing everyday sounds via physical analyses and protocol studies.
Gaver, W. W., and R. B. Smith. "Auditory Icons in Large-Scale Collaborative
Environments." In Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction: Interact
'90, held August 27--31, 1990, in Cambridge, UK, 735--740. Amsterdam:
North Holland, 1990.
The authors describe SoundShark, an auditory interface to a large-scale
collaborative system designed for distance education. They give examples
of sounds used to confirm user actions, to convey information about ongoing
processes and modes, to aid navigation, and to support collaboration.
Gaver, W. W., T. Moran, A. MacLean, L. Lvstrand, P. Dourish, K. Carter,
and W. Buxton. "Realizing a Video Environment: EuroPARC's RAVE System."
In Proceedings of CHI '92, held May 3--7, 1992, in Monterey, CA.
Reading, MA: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley, 1992.
A review of EuroPARC's RAVE system, a computer-controlled audio-video network
that supports remote collaboration (see also Buxton and Moran, 1990). The
authors discuss the nature of collaboration, the emergent functionality
of the system, and issues concerning privacy; and describe related systems
Gaver, W. W., R. B. Smith, and T. O'Shea. "Effective Sounds in Complex
Systems: The ARKola Simulation." In Proceedings of CHI '91, held
April 28--May 2, 1991, in New Orleans. Reading, MA: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley,
The ARKola bottling factory was a software simulation designed for testing
auditory icons in a complex, cooperative task. Observations of participants
running the plant with and without sound suggested that auditory icons
affected their perception of the plant and their collaboration (see also
Gaver & Smith, 1990).
Getty, D. J., and J. H. Howard, Jr. Auditory and Visual Pattern Recognition.
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1981.
This edited volume includes five chapters on the perception of complex
auditory patterns, two chapters on theoretical approaches to pattern recognition,
and three chapters on multidimensional approaches to pattern perception.
Gibson, J. J. The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1966.
Gibson is the founder of the ecological approach to perception. In this
book he argues that the senses should be considered systems, extending
beyond the primary sensory mechanisms, for picking up information in the
environment. This is Gibson's only major work that discusses audition.
Gibson, J. J. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston:
Houghton Mifflin, 1979.
Gibson's last book includes a classic description of the information available
for visual perception, the concept of affordances, and experiments showing
how people pick up and use information in the world. As with all of Gibson's
work, this book is extremely well written and a pleasure to read.
Glavin, S. "Creating Sound Symbols from Digital Terrain Models: An Exploration
of Cartographc Communication Forms." Unpublished Master's Thesis, Carleton
In the cartographic application realm, Glavin has sonified three-dimensional
landscapes by creating sound symbols from Digital Terrain Models. This
is the earliest citation of sonification in cartography.
Grantham, D. W. "Detection and Discrimination of Simulated Motion of
Auditory Targets in the Horizontal Plane." J. Acous. Soc. Am. 79
Using a technique of simulating auditory motion in the horizontal plane
with two fixed loudspeakers which is described in some depth in the appendix,
Grantham tested subjects' ability to detect and discriminate motion of
500-Hz tones. It is concluded that, for the range of simulated velocities
simulated, subjects used spatial change rather than velocity per se in
these detection and discrimination tasks.
Green, D. M. "Audition: Psychophysics and Perception." In Stevens'
Handbook of Experimental Psychology, edited by R. C. Atkinson, R. J.
Herrnstein, G. Lindzey, and R. D. Luce, 377--408. New York: Wiley, 1988.
Covers psychophysical performance in detection and discrimination of intensity
and frequency, sound localization, and perception of loudness and pitch.
Grinstein, G., and S. Smith. "The Perceptualization of Scientific Data."
In Proceedings of the SPIE/SPSE Conference on Electronic Imaging,
Vol. 1259, 190--199. Santa Clara, CA: SPIE, 1990.
This paper was the first to fully describe "Exvis," the integrated
visualization and sonification system developed at University of Massachusetts'
Lowell group. The accompanying video shows a style of interaction pioneered
in Exvis and provides several examples of typical sounds generated by Exvis.