Fisher, P. "Hearing the Error in Classified Remotely Sensed Images."
Unpublished manuscript in review, University of Leicester, 1993.
Fisher reports using auditory data representations for error detection
in classified, remotely sensed images. One of the few applications of sonification
to cartography and GIS.
Fisher, S. S., E. J. Wenzel, C. Coler, and M. W. McGreevy. "Virtual
Interface Environment Workstations." In Proceedings of the 32nd Annual
Meeting of the Human Factors Society, held in Anaheim, CA, 91--95,
This paper on NASA-Ames Research Center's Virtual Interface Environment
Workstation includes an early description of the center's work using binaural
auditory display, synthesis of three-dimensional sound cues, speech synthesis
and recognition, and associating "sound signatures" with objects or types
of information display in a virtual environment.
Fitch, T., and G. Kramer. "Sonifying the Body Electric: Superiority
of an Auditory over a Visual Display in a Complex, Multivariate System."
In Auditory Display: Sonification, Audification, and Auditory Interfaces,
edited by G. Kramer. Santa Fe Institute Studies in the Sciences of Complexity,
Proc. Vol. XVIII. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1994.
The authors present an eight-variable auditory interface for anesthesiologists
which uses self-labeling streams with data variables "piggy-backed" upon
that stream by manipulation of selected acoustic variables. Subjects using
the display demonstrated faster and more accurate response using the auditory
display than with the visual and the combined auditory/visual displays.
Fletcher, H., and W. A. Munson. "Loudness: Its Definition, Measurement
and Calculation." J. Acous. Soc. Am. 5 (1933): 82--88.
The authors refer to "dynamic" as the perceived loudness of a passage of
music. This perception of amplitude is discussed in detail.
Forbes, T. W. "Auditory Signals for Instrument Flying." J. Aeronautical
Soc. May (1946): 255--258.
After finding that combinations of tones created a confusing display that
was difficult to use, the author turned to one signal in which multiple
data variables were represented by multiple auditory variables. He found
that pilots were able to use the display as well as a visual display after
only an hour of training. Four key design points were suggested: (1) Pilots
have certain habitual methods of thinking about the airplane, and the signals
must be designed to fit these habits of thought. (2) Because most fliers
are accustomed to using visual indicators, the auditory indicators must
be as simple and self-explanatory as possible. (3) When multiple signals
were used, there was a tendency for one signal to "capture" the attention
of the pilot, to the exclusion of the other signals. This phenomenon should
be avoided. (4) The display should be designed to fit the capabilities
of the average pilot and should be subjected to unbiased psychological
Francioni, J. F., L. Albright, and J. A. Jackson. "Debugging Parallel
Programs Using Sound." In Proceedings of the ACM/ONR Workshop on Parallel
and Distributed Debugging, 68--73. Reading, MA: ACM Press/Addison-Wesley,
These two articles describe the same research: the mapping of parallel
processor activity to sound parameters. By building structures such as
jazz-like chords whose notes' pitch, attack, and crescendo describe the
activity of various processors, the authors are able to analyze processor
loads, flow of processor control, and processor communication.
Francioni, J. F., J. A. Jackson, and L. Albright. "The Sounds of Parallel
Programs." In Proceedings of the Sixth Distributed Memory Computing
Conference, held in Portland, OR, 570--577, 1991a.
This paper introduces auralization techniques as a means for studying the
run-time behavior of parallel programs. Examples are described of simple
sound mappings that directly map run-time events of parallel programs to
MIDI sound events. Although the sound playbacks discussed in this paper
are not synchronized with any graphical representations, the basic feasibility
of the auralization idea is demonstrated.
Frantii, G. E., and L. A. Leverault "Auditory Discrimination of Seismic
Signals from Earthquakes and Explosions." Bull. Seis. Soc. Am. 55(1)
Twenty-one observers classified 200 time-compressed, audibly displayed
seismic events as either earthquakes or explosions correctly 2/3 of the
time (where 1/2 corresponds to chance performance). Experiments were done
to determine the receiver operating characteristics of listeners, the effect
of training on performance, the effect of epicentral distance, and the
effect of dual (horizontal and vertical) component playback. Among the
significant conclusions was that observers reached plateau performance
with the 1500 decisions and that the performance could be improved by using
multiple component (stereo) playbacks.
Freed, D. J., and W. L. Martens. "Deriving Psychophysical Relations
for Timbre." In Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference,
held October 20--24, 1986, in The Hague, The Netherlands, 1986.
The authors present acoustic analyses and experiments on the auditory perception
of mallet hardness; one of the few examples of studies of everyday listening.
Frysinger, S. P. "Pattern Recognition in Auditory Data Representation."
Unpublished Thesis, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, 1988.
Frysinger, S. P. "Applied Research in Auditory Data Representation."
In Extracting Meaning From Complex Data--Proceedings of the SPIE/SPSE
Symposium on Electronic Imaging, held February 1990, edited by E. J.
Farrell. Springfield, VA: SPIE, 1990.
These two papers include an investigation of auditory/visual representations
of multivariate time-series data. Two forced-choice experiments were conducted
in which subjects determined which of two data sets was correlated. Subjects'
data interpretation performance was found to depend upon detection task.
For correlation detection, time-series dimensionality was a significant
variable in display performance, and the combined auditory/visual display
proved superior to the auditory-only display, while for trained pattern
detection, dimensionality was not a factor, and the performance of the
auditory/visual display was essentially the same as the auditory-only display.
For a 30-second excerpt of DRI economic indicators from 1948 to 1980,